What are Hub and Switch in Computer Network

What are Hub and Switch in Computer Network?

What is a Hub?

A hub is a physical networking device, and the hub is used to connect many devices to the network, usually, it is used to connect computers to the LAN.

It is a multiport repeater. The hub basically connects multiple wires coming from different branches. Hubs do not filter data, so data packets are sent to all connected devices. In other words, the collision domain of all hosts connected via the hub remains one. In addition, they do not have the intelligence to find the best route for data packets that leads to inefficiencies and wastage.

Types of Hub

Here are three types of Hub:

  • Active Hub: The active hub has its own power supply. It can typically clean, improve and relay signals with the network. It acts as a repeater as well as a center of wires. They are used as an extension for two or more nodes.
  • Passive Hub: Passive hubs typically collect power supplies from wiring from hubs to active hubs and nodes. Passive hubs relay signals to the network without cleaning and extending them. Do not use it to increase the distance between nodes.
  • Intelligent Hub: Intelligent Hub works like an active hub and has remote management capabilities. They provide flexible data rates to network devices. It also enables an administrator to monitor all traffic passing through the hub and configure each port in the hub.

Features of Hub

  • The hub typically provides support in half-duplex transmission mode.
  • The hub has only a single broadcast domain.
  • It does not support the spanning tree protocol.
  • Packet collisions occur mostly inside a hub.
  • It works with broadcast and shared bandwidth.
  • It consists of 1 broadcast domain and 1 collision domain.
  • Works on the physical layer of the OSI model.
  • Virtual LAN cannot be created using a hub.

Advantages of HUB

  • It provides backward compatibility.
  • It helps you increase the total distance of the network.
  • It shares internet scalability (uplink).
  • It allows network monitoring.

Disadvantages of HUB

  • They do not usually select the best path of the network.
  • There is no mechanism of any kind to reduce network traffic.
  • This has the potential for greater device resolution.
  • Network size.
  • It is mostly half-duplex.
  • The hub does not offer dedicated bandwidth.

Application of Hubs

  • Hub is used in network monitoring.
  • In it you can create a device or peripheral, which is available, can be thought out of the network.
  • The hub is used for connectivity in organizations.
  • Hubs are used to build small home networks.

What is a Switch?

A network switch is a computer networking device. The switch connects the various devices together on a computer network. It can also be used to route information in the form of electronic data sent over the network. Since the process of connecting network segments is also called bridging, the switch is usually called a bridging device. The switch is more efficient than the hub, as the switch passes through traffic much more efficiently. It records the entire address that is connected to the computer. When traffic arrives, the switch reads the destination address and transfers that traffic to all Sends to the appropriate computer instead of sending it to connected computers. If the destination address is not in the table, the switch sends traffic to all connected computers.

Type of Switch

  • Manageable switches: It usually contains a console port and an IP address that can be assigned and configured
  • Unbearable switch: It cannot do any configuration. It is not possible to assign an IP address due to not having a console port.


Features of Switch

  • It allows you to create a virtual LAN.
  • It usually acts as a multi-port bridge.
  • It mostly comes with 24 to 48 ports.
  • It provides support for half and full-duplex transmission modes.
  • This is a Datalink layer device (layer 2).
  • The switch works with fixed bandwidth.
  • It basically maintains the MAC address table.

Advantages of Switch

  • It basically supports VLANs which can help in the logical division of ports
  • Switches from port to mac mapping use CAM tables.
  • This usually helps you reduce the number of broadcast domains.
  • Switches usually provide an easy way to connect segments running at different speeds.
  • Switches basically use special chips to make their decisions in hardware to delay special processing and perform faster.
  • They are replacing routers inside the network as they are more than 10 times faster on forwarding frames on Ethernet networks.
  • Switches are plug-and-play devices. As soon as the first packet arrives, they start learning the interface or port to arrive at the desired address.
  • This usually improves security by sending traffic only to the addressed device.

Disadvantages of Switch

  • It involves handling multicast packets which require a lot of configuration and proper design.
  • This reduces the number of broadcast domains.
  • It is not as good as a router to limit broadcasts.
  • It usually requires VLAN routing for communication between VLANs, but there are many multilayer switches available in the market these days.

Applications of Switches

  • Switches are used to physically connect devices together in computer networks.
  • A switch can transfer data to any other device, using either half-duplex mode or full-duplex mode.
  • A switch helps you manage the flow of data in the network.
  • Medium to large-sized LANs with multiple linked managed switches.
  • The switch is widely used in SOHO (Small Office / Home Office) applications. SOHO is mostly single switch access to various broadband services.